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They also claimed that they had reached a highway to the southwest of Mosul and had cut the first supply line to Mosul from Raqqa. However, they were forced to withdraw from Karama district because of heavy resistance.

On 7 November, the Peshmerga, backed by coalition airstrikes, launched an offensive from three fronts in the morning to take the town of Bashiqa , which was still held by ISIL and had been surrounded for about two weeks.

The town of Bashiqa was reported to be fully under Peshmerga control, though an ISIL pocket remained under siege in the town until the end of the month.

The Iraqi Army's 9th armored division and the 3rd Brigade captured the village of Manarat Shabak, east of the city, and made an incursion into the eastern Mosul neighborhoods of Hay Intisar, Judaydah al-Mufti, and Hay Shaima.

On 11 November, Iraqi forces on the southern front were preparing to advance up the western bank of the Tigris River toward Mosul International Airport.

On 15 November, troops of the Golden Division began storming areas in northern and eastern Mosul, including the neighborhoods of al-Akhaa, al-Bakr, and al-Hadbaa.

Special Forces captured four Islamic State commanders near the town of Al-Ba'aj , far to the west, near the Syrian border. At the end of November, the Iraqi military assessed that it had taken control of 19 neighborhoods in eastern Mosul during the month, about somewhat less than 30 percent of the area of Mosul east of the Tigris.

However, ISIL recaptured the hospital after a counterattack, which destroyed or disabled 20 Iraqi vehicles. Air Force Brigadier General Matthew Isler announced that pro-government forces had entered a planned operational refit, which included repairing vehicles, re-supplying ammunition and preparing for the next stage of the battle.

He also stated that they had captured more than a quarter of the city. On 23 December, the Iraqi Army captured the Mosul Police Academy headquarters in Al-Qahira district, which was their first major advance since the suspension of military operations a week earlier.

Army Colonel Brett G. Sylvia stated that American soldiers assisting Iraqi forces would be embedded more extensively and would partner with additional formations.

The US-led Coalition stated that it had disabled a Mosul bridge with airstrikes, without providing further details. On 29 December, Iraqi forces launched the second phase of the battle, pushing from three directions into the remaining eastern Mosul districts.

Iraqi soldiers and Federal Police entered about half a dozen southeastern districts, while the CTS advanced in the al-Quds and Karama districts.

In the third front, Iraqi soldiers also pushed toward the northern city limits. In the northern front, the 16th Division stormed the Habdaa district while also trying to cut off the supply lines to Tel Kayf.

An Iraqi Army officer deployed in the southeastern front reported that their advances had slowed down, due to heavy clashes and difficulty in differentiating between civilians and militants.

Iraqi forces on the northern front advanced towards the periphery of Mosul, with an officer stating that heavy clashes were ongoing in the Argoob area.

Iraqi forces continued their advance on 1 January , capturing a part of the Karama district, taking near complete control of Intissar and Siha districts, and clearing the Salam district.

Iraqi forces later captured the al-Moallemin and Sumer districts, as well as the Mosul-Kirkuk road. On 5 January, Lt. General Raed Shaker Jawdat stated that the group's headquarters in Nineveh province had been destroyed and that Iraqi forces had captured eight districts in the second phase, thus bringing the entire southeastern section of Mosul under their control.

He also stated that all the remaining districts in east Mosul had been surrounded and would be stormed soon. The CTS captured al-Gharfan district previously known as al-Baath and entered Wahda district, later capturing a hospital complex in Wahda.

ISIL was still in control of the city's water stations, and was reported to have cut the water supply to more than 30 districts that had been captured by Iraqi forces.

Several governmental offices, including the communication complex, provincial electricity department, and a security headquarters were also captured by the CTS.

On the southeastern front, the Federal Police and Iraqi Army pushed further into al-Salam, Palestine, Sumer, Yarimja, and Sahiron districts, while on the northern front, the Iraqi Army advanced further into al-Hadbaa while capturing northern part of Sabaa Nisaan.

Around the same time, the Rapid Response Division advanced in the Sumer and Sahiroun districts, [] capturing those districts later in the day.

The Federal Police also captured the highway between Mosul and Kirkuk. By this point, Iraqi forces had taken complete control of the river banks in the south.

Meanwhile, on the northern front, the Iraqi Army captured the Kindi military base, the former headquarters of the 2nd Division , as well as the nearby al-Kindi facility.

Meanwhile, the Iraqi Army captured the al-Qadhiyah district and were fighting on the edges of al-Arabi district. Clashes continued in the Al-Arabi District.

Meanwhile, the CTS started performing clearing operations in the districts they had captured in east Mosul. On 21 January, Iraqi forces continued advancing in the outskirts of the city.

The Iraqi Arm captured the al-Arabi district, as well as al-Qousiyat village, killing some 40 militants killed and destroying four car bombs.

Following these advances, Iraqi Prime Minister Haider al-Abadi later announced the "full liberation" of eastern Mosul. Meanwhile, many news outlets reported the end of the battle during the mid-to-late-July period, with the focus of Iraqi forces now being hunting down surviving militants, clearing explosives and dead bodies.

He also added that explosive belts, ten tons of ammonia nitrates and five barrels of C4 and six booby-trapping workshops were seized. Jawdat stated on 11 August that a workshop for manufacturing Katyusha rockets was found in Mesherfa district.

Nineveh police intelligence department's Cap. Federal Police chief, Lt. It contained C4, ammonia and other substances.

She stated that while stabilization in east Mosul can be achieved in two months, in some districts of Mosul it might take years, with six out of 44 districts almost completely destroyed.

All the districts of Mosul received light or moderate damage. The UN also estimated that more than 5, buildings have been damaged and another were destroyed in the Old City alone during the battle.

Up to 1. Fears that civilians could be used as human shields by ISIL were realized as it was confirmed the group had been abducting civilians from villages for this purpose, which received widespread condemnation from human rights groups and the United Nations Security Council.

Pentagon spokesman Capt. Jeff Davis stated that ISIL was using civilians as human shields and holding people against their will in the city.

An Iraqi intelligence source stated on 21 October that ISIL executed men and boys abducted from Mosul for the purpose of using them as human shields.

The civilians were shot and put in a mass grave. A United Nations official said the UN is "gravely worried" about the fate of families from Somalia and families from Najafia who were abducted Monday by ISIL, who could be used as human shields.

On 26 October, CNN reported that ISIL has been carrying out "retribution killings" of civilians as revenge for others welcoming Iraqi and Peshmerga troops in villages restored under government control.

On 21 October, International Business Times reported that "disturbing and graphic footage posted to social media allegedly shows Iraqi security forces torturing and interrogating young children for information about ISIL as they attempt to retake Mosul from the Islamic State terror group.

On 17 March, a U. An estimate in mid-July by Kurdish intelligence put the total number of civilian casualties at 40, The largest portion of this loss of life is attributable to the unyielding artillery bombardment by Iraqi government forces — in particular, units of the Iraqi Federal Police — of west Mosul.

Killings by ISIL and air strikes were two other significant sources of civilian deaths. The World Health Organization stated on 4 March that twelve people were being treated in Erbil for possible exposure to chemical weapons in Mosul.

The WHO said that they had enabled "an emergency response plan to safely treat men, women and children who may be exposed to the highly toxic chemical[s]" and were preparing for more patients with exposure to these agents.

According to the UN, four patients show "severe signs associated with exposure to a blister agent", which they were exposed to on the eastern side of the city.

In April , American and Australian advisory forces embedded with Iraqi units were attacked with low-grade, "rudimentary" chemical weapons during an offensive.

The World Health Organization WHO said it had trained 90 Iraqi medics in "mass casualty management" as part of its preparations for the Mosul operation, with a special focus on responding to chemical attacks, AP reported.

ISIL has previously used chemical weapons in attacks on Iraqi and coalition forces, and there are fears that it might do so again inside Mosul, where more than a million civilians live.

On 3 November, Kurdish and UN aid workers said that more than 40, refugees had fled to Kurdistan in the first few weeks of fighting.

Ten new refugee camps have been built in the Dohuk Governorate , Erbil Governorate and in the town of Khazir. The previous 48 hours saw a 53 percent increase in displacement.

More than Iraqi civilians have fled to the Al-Hawl refugee camp located in the Rojava region of northeastern Syria , while another civilians have migrated to the Turkish—Iraqi borders.

Iraqi Baath Party. Several media outlets including Al Jazeera and Channel 4 live streamed the first day's battle on Facebook, a first in war coverage.

Iraqi and Kurdish officials are also joining in on social media using the hashtag FreeMosul. On 17 October, several Iraqi media outlets established the National Media Alliance to support journalists reporting on the battle.

The groups include both government-run and private media, including Al Iraqiya and Al Sumaria. The alliance provides technical and journalistic services, including a joint operations newsroom.

It was formed to counter ISIL propaganda and foster cooperation among the various media groups in order to reduce chaos and improve safety.

Journalist Walid al-Tai told Al-Monitor , "One of the reasons behind the establishment of the alliance is to avoid any chaotic media coverage of the battle as every media and military institution is sending its correspondents to battlefronts.

This leads to conflict in the coverage of the fighting and a greater number of casualties among journalists.

Journalist Mustafa Habib reported that Iraqi citizens are coordinating efforts on Facebook and Twitter to counter ISIL propaganda, such as fake photos and videos, that may be used to intimidate locals in Mosul.

A communications department of a Shia militia also announced it would be contributing to a social media campaign, and that Iraqi journalists were embedded with the militias surrounding Mosul to report updates.

They are left only with weapons that they will use to kill themselves once the liberating forces make the decision to raid the city.

The involvement of Turkey in the operation has considerably strained its relations with Iraq. Turkey has refused to withdraw its forces.

We tell them thank you, this is something the Iraqis will handle and the Iraqis will liberate Mosul and the rest of the territories. Turkey announced it was sending tanks and artillery from Ankara to Silopi near the Iraqi border.

Al-Abadi, addressing journalists in Baghdad, said, "We warn Turkey if they want to enter Iraq, they will end up becoming fragmented We do not want to fight Turkey.

We do not want a confrontation with Turkey. God forbid, even if we engage in war with them, the Turks will pay a heavy price. They will be damaged.

Yes, we too will be damaged, but whenever a country fights a neighboring country, there will be no winner, both will end up losing. On 7 November, Iraq rejected Turkey's proposal to continue running the Bashiqa military camp, no matter if it were formally transferred under the auspices of the coalition forces, and suggested that Turkey hand over control of the camp to Iraq's central government.

In February , Human Rights Watch issued a report regarding the violation of the laws of war in Iraq. According to the report, Islamic State fighters occupied Al-Salam Hospital in Mosul in June , and put the staff and the patients at risk of attacks.

During the Battle of Mosul, seven Iraqi soldiers' corpses were dragged through the streets, and the bodies of three soldiers were hanged from a bridge in the city.

As the report mentioned, ISIL fighters occupied a clinic in the town of Hammam al-Alil , which was then hit by an airstrike without warning on 18 October, killing at least eight civilians.

Previously, they occupied other clinics in other towns controlled by the Islamic State fighters in Iraq, as well operating offices in all the medical facilities in the Republican, Ibn Sina, al-Salam, and Mosul General Hospitals.

Human Rights Watch warned that Popular Mobilization Forces were poorly trained to conduct these screenings. They argued that the irregular nature of screening and detention practices and isolation of detainees in custody risk abuse of the detainees, including arbitrary detention and enforced disappearances.

On 11 July , a report was published by Amnesty International, accusing both sides of violating international laws in the battle, about a day after victory was declared by Iraqi forces.

The report accused Iraqi forces and the US-led Coalition of carrying out a series of unlawful attacks in west Mosul, using heavily on Improvised Rocket Assisted Munitions IRAMs , explosive weapons and the failure of government to take necessary precautions to prevent the loss of civilian lives and in some cases including disproportionate attacks.

It also recorded civilian deaths in airstrikes during the most intensive phase from 19 February. It noted that ISIL had announced in November that civilians under government-held areas would be considered "legitimate targets" as they didn't fight the pro-government forces.

It also called upon Iraqi authorities to investigate alleged violations and human rights abuses by Iraqi security forces during the battle.

An Associated Press investigation that cross-referenced independent databases from non-governmental organizations, claimed that 9,—11, residents of Mosul were killed in the battle.

It blamed airstrikes and shellings by Iraqi forces and anti-ISIL coalition of being responsible for at least 3, civilian deaths.

The coalition on the other hand has acknowledged responsibility for deaths. ISIL was held responsible for killing one third of the civilians out of the death toll.

AP also obtained a list of 9, people killed in the battle from Mosul's morgue while Iraqi Prime Minister Haider al-Abadi had claimed 1, deaths. It stated however that some ISIL members might be among the remaining 6, From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Redirected from Battle of Mosul — This is the latest accepted revision , reviewed on 1 October Iraqi Civil War — Main articles: Fall of Mosul and Mosul offensive Main article: Mosul offensive Iraqi government control.

ISIL control. Peshmerga control. See also: Battle of Tal Afar and Hawija offensive Main article: Human rights abuses during the Battle of Mosul — Asia portal Iraq portal War portal.

The Guardian. Archived from the original on 17 October CBC News. Archived from the original on 18 October Sky News Australia. Archived from the original on 20 December Al Jazeera.

Archived from the original on 24 October Retrieved 23 October The Christian Science Monitor. Archived from the original on 7 November Archived from the original on 12 February Retrieved 10 February Long War Journal.

Archived from the original on 6 November BBC News. Archived from the original on 11 July Cable News Network. Archived from the original on 10 July The National Interest.

Archived from the original on 18 July USA Today. Archived from the original on 24 January Iraqi News. Archived from the original on 23 July Retrieved 21 July Stars and Stripes.

Archived from the original on 21 July Retrieved 22 July Archived PDF from the original on 12 June Retrieved 29 November Archived from the original on 31 October Associated Press.

Archived from the original on 27 April Ahlul Bayt News Agency. Tasnim News Agency. Archived from the original on 1 August Archived from the original on 1 November United States Department of Defense.

Archived from the original on 26 March Press TV. Archived from the original on 24 February Archived from the original on 16 June There is realism in its depiction of the preparation of a ruler's meal and of horsemen engaged in various activities, and the painting is as many hued as that of the early Mosul school, yet it is somehow less spirited.

The composition is more elaborate but less successful. By this time the Baghdad school, which combined the styles of the Syrian and early Mosul schools, had begun to dominate.

With the invasion of the Mongols in the midth century the Mosul school came to an end, but its achievements were influential in both the Mamluk and the Mongol schools of miniature painting.

As per IS policy, even primary schools were gender segregated, putting a strain on educational resources.

On January 15, , 30 schools reopened in the east of the city, allowing 16, children to start classes again. Some of them had no education at all since IS took over Mosul in June The city has one football team capable of competing in the top-flight of Iraqi football — Mosul FC.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the city. For the former province, see Mosul Vilayet. For other uses, see Mosul disambiguation.

For the dialect, see North Mesopotamian Arabic. City in Iraq. Tigris , a bridge and Grand Mosque in Mosul. Further information: Fall of Mosul.

This article needs to be updated. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. August Main article: Mosques and shrines of Mosul.

Main article: List of churches and monasteries in Nineveh. This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources.

Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. July Learn how and when to remove this template message. Iraq portal. Wall Street Journal. Weather Quality Reporter.

Retrieved 16 June United Nations Statistics Division Iraqis are united and this protest is a great indication of how united we are".

Voice of America. Retrieved 13 March Anadolu Agency. Carlson et al. To Mesopotamia and Kurdistan in Disguise. John Murray: London, Wigram The Assyrians and Their Neighbours.

Retrieved 21 December The Economist. Retrieved 22 April Max Mallowan. Historic Cities of the Islamic World. New York: Oxford University Press. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Middle Eastern Studies. Journal of the Historical Society. Mosul, — , Studies in Islamic Civilization, Cambridge, p. Dominican Life. Retrieved Retrieved on Associated Press.

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August 11, — via Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved 10 July The New York Times. Retrieved 5 November Stars and Stripes. Mosul has since grown more prosperous, with increased trade and the development of important oil fields nearby to the east and north.

There is a refinery in the city. Mosul was once famous for its fine cotton goods; it is now a centre of cement, textile, sugar, and other industries and a marketplace for agricultural products.

The city has road and rail connections with Baghdad and other Iraqi cities and with nearby Syria and Turkey, and it has an airport.

Mosul contains many ancient buildings, some dating from the 13th century. George , several Christian churches, and various Muslim shrines and mausoleums.

Since World War II —45 the city has been enlarged in area several times by new construction. Most striking has been the expansion on the eastern bank of the Tigris; there are now five bridges connecting the two sides of the city.

The University of Mosul is the second largest university in Iraq, after the University of Baghdad. Article Media. Info Print Cite.

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That means hunting down Islamic State stragglers, removing thousands of bodies and locating all the bombs that could still go off.

Archived from the original on 17 February In the wake of victory against the Islamic State group in Mosul, Iraq's political, religious and military leaders are debating the future of the country's powerful Shiite militias — the tens of thousands of men who answered a religious call to arms three years ago and played a critical role in beating back the extremists.

Islamic State militants were ousted from Mosul, Iraq's second-largest city, earlier this month following a gruelling US-backed campaign that has left much of the city in ruins.

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Archived from the original on 26 September Archived from the original on 24 July L'Orient-Le Jour.

Al Arabiya. Firat News Agency. Al Jazeera Türk. If our red lines are crossed Rudaw Media Agency. Hurriyet Daily News.

Archived from the original on 15 February Retrieved 14 February HUman RIghts Watch. Archived from the original on 22 March From its original site on the western bank of the Tigris River , the modern city expanded to the eastern bank and now encircles the ruins of the ancient Assyrian city of Nineveh.

Probably built on the site of an earlier Assyrian fortress, Mosul succeeded Nineveh as the Tigris bridgehead of the road that linked Syria and Anatolia with Persia.

By the 8th century ce it had become the principal city of northern Mesopotamia. The Ottoman Turks ruled the region from to , during which time Mosul became a trade centre of the Ottoman Empire and the headquarters of a political subdivision.

Mosul has since grown more prosperous, with increased trade and the development of important oil fields nearby to the east and north.

There is a refinery in the city. Mosul was once famous for its fine cotton goods; it is now a centre of cement, textile, sugar, and other industries and a marketplace for agricultural products.

The city has road and rail connections with Baghdad and other Iraqi cities and with nearby Syria and Turkey, and it has an airport.

Mosul contains many ancient buildings, some dating from the 13th century. George , several Christian churches, and various Muslim shrines and mausoleums.

Since World War II —45 the city has been enlarged in area several times by new construction. Most striking has been the expansion on the eastern bank of the Tigris; there are now five bridges connecting the two sides of the city.

The University of Mosul is the second largest university in Iraq, after the University of Baghdad. Article Media. Info Print Cite.

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